Tag Archives: Coir

The 6 main pest and diseases of rose & how to treat them.

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Pest  and  Disease  Control  of  Roses  

Introduction  – What  is  IPC  and  its  Methods

For  those  that  have  followed  My  blog on

general  pest  &  disease  control   Will   remember  that    I  use  the  IPC  method  on  all  plants  especially  roses. So  you    will  just  need  to  skip  this  paragraph   until  you  get  to  the  one  you  that  you  know. For  those  that  are new .  I  will  briefly  explain  what  IPC  is  before  going  on to  the  Pest  and  Disease  section .

Briefly  I  P C  stands  for  :-

  • Identify  –  By  Identifying  the  pest  or  disease  you can  then  isolate  it  and   treat  it  without  harming  any  other  insects  or  predators  that  are  beneficial  to  the  plant
  • Prevention  –

Prevention  is  better  than  cure

If  you  followed  the  guide  lines  that  i  told you. You are   less  more  than  likely  to  get    infected by  a  blight  or  pest  but   like  the  common  cold  no  matter  how  much  we  keep  healthy  we  still  get  it.  so  is  very  much  like plants

in  their  case  they  will  become  less  sickly  if  we  observed  their  requirement  from  the  off  set  as  I   have  pin  pointed  in  the  first  blog  

Control   or  Monitor   methods –   And  finally  Control    With  the  pest  or  Disease on  rose    isolated  we  can  begin  the  applying  the  safe  practise  of  control   whether its  Chemical  or  Organic  or  mechanical

The 6 main pest  &  Diseases 

& How  to  treat them

The  main  6   pest  &  Diseases  of  roses  are :-

  1. Aphids  
  2. Black Fly
  3. White  Fly
  4. Mildew
  5. Rust
  6. Black Spot

There  are  others  pest  like  the  leaf  cutting  bee   thrips &saw flies   but  those  are  the  main  six

Saw  Flies

These are caterpillar-like larvae, which feed on the leaves of your roses in the spring. They are about 1 ¼ inch long and are light green, some with black spots. If you get on top of this pest right away, you should be able to control them by simply hand-picking them. Look for them on the undersides of the leaves.

Saw  Fly  symptoms

Saw fly larvae symptoms

These  you  just  simply  remove  and  incinerate as  the  caterpillar is  well  protected

 

 

 

Leaf  Cutting  bees

leaf  cutting  bee

Tel tail of leaf cutting bees

 

 

 

 

 

Thrips

Thrips are tiny, slender, dark brown or black, sucking insects that damage and destroy opening rose buds turning them brown and leaving them only partially opened. They also feed on the upper surface of the leaf. They can be difficult to see outdoors. If you think that your rose may have thrips, take a cutting inside and shake it over white paper to see if any fall out. Look for a brownish black insect with a narrow body up to 1/16 inch long. They thrive in hot, dry conditions. Regularly watering your roses and spraying with an insecticide or simply cutting off the affected rose or leaf should do the job

thrips

Thrips

 

 

 

 

  1. I have   already  been  mentioned  in detail along  with  white  fly  in  the  following  blog
  2. BlackFly  

Identification

Black  Fly

Black Fly

As  you  can  see  from  this  picture  these  pest  can  be  easily  Identified &  tend  to  swarm  in  colonies  attacking  anything  that  is  green  and  sappy  whether  it  your  green  beans or  bedding  plants  to  roses  that  have  been  over  feed  with  high  nitrogen  fertilizer  to  produce  sappy  growth .

Prevention

The  best  way  to  prevent  your  roses  being  attacked  by  these  pest  is  to  carefully  check  your  feeding  of  roses.

As  I  said  above  these  and  other  pest  like  aphids  like  green  sappy  growth  for  their  piecing and  sucking  mouth  parts

Feeding this way causes problems for the plant: aphids can transmit plant viruses, and the sticky honeydew they exude can attract sooty moulds to grow

As  in the  case of  lime  trees  every    where

Good  hygiene  too   don’t  compost  any  infected  plants  in  winter  as  the  females  lays  its  eggs  in  the  autumn on  plants  to  feed  its  nurseries and  ounce  the  eggs  has  hatched  in  spring  they  fly  off   on to  much  better  food  supply  and the  circle  begins.

So by  either  bagging  up  infected  plants  or  burning  them  you  are  at  least  cutting  down  on  the  numbers  in  your  garden . But  since  they  can  fly  doesn’t  really  guarantee  you  that  you  are  free  them

So  we  go  to  the  next  Section

Control  or  Management 

There  are   3   methods  of  control

  1. Cultural  

By  this  mean   good  hygiene  and  feeding  regime  as  I  said  above  also  to  encourage  their  natural  predators  into  the  garden   like  Ladybirds lacewings   even  small  birds  feed  on  the  insects  now  and  again

Click to tweet   how   you  can  attract  more  predators into  your  garden  

Spraying  with  tar  oil  or  winter  washes   tends  to  work  well in  winter    when  the  female  lays  it  eggs

Natural  Predators

2. Biological  Control  

is comparatively expensive, but effective – if you can create the right conditions. The main problem being that there will be a time lag between being able to source the biological control of Blackfly. Together with this, there will need to be enough Blackfly for the biological predators to act upon.

However  ongoing  research according  to  this  article  here  published  in  2005

This discovery has applications for pest management – the aphid sucrase enzyme could be a suitable target for specific inhibitors that would abolish its dual role in osmoregulation and carbon nutrition of the aphid.

that  these  pest  can  be  controlled  by  spraying  or  other  methods  not  yet  mentioned,

Current research is focussing on determining the mechanism – it’s possible that an anti-microbial with the symbiotic bacteria as the primary target may have evolved in certain plants.

As  I  already  have  gone  into  detail  about  the  use  of  chemical  as  a  method  of  culture  I  wont  go  into  detail  here  but  only  to  stress  the  dangers 

Mildew  

Mildrew

The effect of Mildrew on roses

As you  can  see  from  the  picture  that  Mildew  can  be  easily  recognised  by  its  powdery  white  effect  on  leafs  and  stems .                        In  fact  Mildews  a  fungal  Disease  rather  like BlackSpot  but  cause  its  feeds  on  moisture  on  the  plant  leaves   it  easily  remedied  by  following  the  procedure

Prevention 

Cultural  control

If you  seen  any signs  on   your  roses  whether  on the  leaves  or  buds  its  best  to   prune  them  out  to  avoid  the  spores  from  spreading  any  further.

Good  hygiene  again  is  important  –  keep  the  center  clear  of  branches  in  the  spring  to  allow  air  flow  through  and  around  the  plant

Try  avoid  watering  from  above  or  in  between  the    branches  water  from  the  bellow ,

Avoid  watering  in  them  evening   go  for   in  the  morning    where  if  you  have  splashed  the  leaves  the  water  has  a  chance  to  dry  off

Plant  rose  far  enough  part  so  they  can  spread  out

Control  

 

Rose Rust

Identification

As  you  can  see  from  these  two  examples  that  rose  rust  can  be  easily  recognised  by  its  orange  flex on leaves  and buds

Rose  Rust

Rose Rust on buds

Rose  Rust

Rose Rust on leaves

 

 

 

 

 

And  like  Powdery  Mildew  its  a  fungal  disease  on  the  roses  but  less  severe. That  occurs  from  the  beginning  of  spring  right  up  to  summer  should  the  environmental conditions  be  right  for  the  spores  to  spread

Prevention 

6  Cultural  Methods of  controlling  rust  

  • Good  Hygiene  as  always  –
  1.  remove  infected    leaves  and  incinerate  to  prevent  the  spores  from  spreading    like  Black Spot   spores lay  dormant  in  the  on  the  soil  surface  until  they  are  either  splashed  up  by  the  rain  or  watering  from  above   or  carried  up  by  insects  especially  ants . So  clearing  the  ground  of  debris  around  the  plant  is  a  must.
  2. Pruning –  By  leaving  the  center  clean  and  cutting  out  crossing  branches  improves  the  air  circulation  around  the  plant  thus  reducing  the  breeding  grounds  for  the  spores  to  live  by  drying  out  the  leaves  and  buds.
  3. Weeding  –  By  clearing  any  weeds  around  the  plant  esp  oxalis  that  get  infected  by  rust  you  are  reducing  the  risk  of  it  spreading  to  the  roses
  4. Improve  the  soil  structure  of  the  soil  by  forking  over  the  ground  in  spring  to  improve  drainage
  5. Avoid  watering    from  above   always  water  from  the  base  of  the  plant
  6. Avoid  working  on  rose  beds  when its  wet  as  you  can  spread  the  spores  by  simply  walking  around .

Control  

Chemical  Control  

When  you  see  the  first  signs  of  rust    spray   the  entire  rose  bush  with  a  copper formulated  compound   examples  can  be  found  here     until  the  bush  is  cleared  giving  it  a  good  drench.

Always    go  by  the  rules  i have mentioned   for  proper  chemical  Management

Organic  Control

There  are  many  new  ‘organic  formulations’  on  the  market  you  could  try if  you are  organically  minded  one  is  the

Disease  spray

Vitax organic spray for pest and disease

 

Vitax  2  in  1  pest  and  disease  control  spray    Yet I  haven’t  had  the chance  to test  it  out  yet.

But  Vitax  is  reputable  firm  that  specialize  in Rose  Care  products

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Spot.

Identification

Black Spot  spores  on  roses

Black Spot spores on roses

Finally  I  come  to  most  dreaded  killer  of  all  roses,

Black Spot  –  as  You  can  see  by  this  image    this  too  easily  recognized  by  it  instinctive black splotches  that  are  actually   spores .  The  thin  white  threads  are  in  the  roses  stem. hence once  you  see it  its  pretty  much  that  there is  no  real  cure  for  it  except  to  either  live  with it  or  destroy  the  bush  all  together.

In  cases  of  My  many  Clients  they  rather  live  with  it  until  it  dies  completely

So  what  can  be  done  to prevent  it

Prevention

Cultural  Prevention

  • As  I  mentioned  at  the  very  start  of  the  Blogs  on  roses    That  when  planting  a  new  rows  always  make  sure  the  rose  gets  a  good  start
  • Mulching  around  the  roses  in  spring  with  sterilized compost  like  Cocopeat  or  peat based formulations     This  will  stop  any    fungal  spores  that  i  mentioned  above  from  splashing  up  and  infecting  younger  shoots
  • Pruning  out  any  dead  diseased  or  dying  branches  and  incinerating  it  (  Do  not  compost  them
  • Improve  the  air  circulation  around  &  inside  the  bush  by  cleaning  out  any  inward  pointing  branches
  • Don’t  plant  roses  close  together  as  one  rose  can  spread  the  disease  to  another  and  this  too  allows  air  to  circulate
  • Water  from  the  base  only

Chemical  Control  

Organic  Control

Advertisements

” For peat sake choose another compost ”

Have you  ever been confused on what to buy now since the Department of Environment  Food & Rural  Affairs ie DEFRA along with the Royal Horticultural society  are  calling  out  to  us  gardeners  &  Horticulturist

For  Peat sake Choose  another  compost

Well  I’m  here  to  ease  your  worries  as  I  have  done  extensively  researched  each  product  old  and  new. &  what  i   found  is  that  are  at  least  3  known  growing  mediums  available  on  the  market today .

So what  are they?

Well  lets  start  of  with  one  that  you  know  most  about .And  That  is

Public display by members of a cooperative mak...

 

 

Coir

 What is Coir

Coir or  coco peat  is  a  fibrous  material  found  between the  hard shell  and  the  outer coat  of  the  coconut.

And depending  on  the  uses whether it used  for  upholstery or  Horticulture –  the  brown  fibre from  the  ripe  shell  of  coconut  to the  white  fibre  of  the   unripe  shell – for  brushes  ect. Comes  into  two  shape &  forms

raw  coco peat  fibers

raw coco peat fibers

Lets  deal  with  the  Horticultural  and  Environmental   side  of  coir . As   we  are  looking  into  it the  alternatives  of  Peat.

From what I  managed to  source   about coir fibre products is  that  they  come  in  very  shape  and  forms for  example  Coir  logs  Coir  Blankets  for  environmental  problems  like  landslides to biodegradable coir  pots.

Lets  start  with  the ones  we  know  about  first  :-

Pure Coconut Coir

As  I  mentioned  before  the   other alternative  to  peat   which  the  RHS  is  pushing  is  the  use  of  Coco  peat  compost . Made  out  of    brown  coir fibre  found  ” between the  hard shell  and  the  outer coat  of  the  coconut.”

What are its  advantages

  1. Because  its  very  fibrous  its  an  ideal  growing  medium  to  grow  young  seedling   or  mature  plants  as it  promote  good  active  root  growth.
  2. It is  also  a  very  sterile  medium  too  hence  its  use  as disc  and  brushes –  this  means  no  fungi  spores  can  thrive  on  it  and   it  repels diseases
  3. Cause  of  this the  Horticultural  disc  are  ideal  for  mulching around  young  plants .
  4. It  is  very  light  to  carry  as  it    either  comes  in  blocks  which  you  have  to  soak  over  night   if  you  want  to  use  the  next day or  the  loose  form
  5. It is  said  to  repel  slugs  –  this  is  because  of  its  bristly  nature   that  they  don’t  like
  6. Coir  biodegrades  easily

What are  the  Disadvantages 

here are  a  few  disadvantages  that  I  know  by  experience  as  horticulturist   that  because  all coir   fibre products

  1. Is  the  cost  all Horticultural  Coir fibre products esp  Coco peat  are   made  over  seas  the  products  tend  to be  very  higher  than   the  other  compost  on  the  Market.
  2. Although  saying  that  after  the  out  cry  a  few  years  back  about  the  same  thing   Many  top  end  names  have   switched  there  peat  to  coco  peat.And  maybe  now  the  price  has  dropped  to  encourage  buyers   to  switch
  3. Coco peat   tends  to  be  alkaline   –  so  try  and  avoid  putting  it  around   acid  loving  plants
  4. As  I  said  before  coco  peat  blocks  needs  to  pre-soaked  over night  to  allow  you  to  use  it  –  a  bit  of  inconvenience  better  prepare  them before

Other  Coconut Coir  fibre  products  are ;-

Coir Pots

biodegradable_pots_pic9

Advantages  of  Coir  Pots

  • These  biodegradable  Coir  Pots  are  ideal  because  of  the  nature  of  the  coir  fibre  products it  allows  the  young  white  tap  roots  to   grow  though    fibre as  you  can  see  from  this  picture
  • This  means  that  plants  can  be  transplanted  straight  outside  or  re-potted  without  putting  the  plant  under  too  much  stress

Disadvantage  of Coir  Pots

From  My  experience  in working  in  my  clients  greenhouse  is  that  :-

  • Coco  peat  is  very  free  draining
  •  Thus    watering  has  to  monitored   carefully    other  wise  the  plants  will  just  wither  &  die  in the  Coir  pots

This  can  be  counter measured  if  the    coir  is  treated  before  hand

  •  And  since  these  are  biodegradable coir  pots  –  be careful  not  to  over water  as  well  as  the  pots  will  disintegrate

These  are  used   as  another  alternative  to  mulching  around  young  plants  especially  Tomatoes  where  it  avoid  splash  back  from  the  soil  where  the  pathogens  live and  gives  the  plant  a  chance   to  grow  .

Made  from  woven  coir  fibre in  a  circular  form  these  can  be  used  in  conjunction  of  these  biodegradable  coir  pots

The  only  disadvantages  is  that you  still  have  to  clear  the  leaf  litter  from  it  for  it  to  have  an  effect  an  example  of  Cocopeat Ring  mats  can  be  seen  below

Coir  Erosion control  products

There  are  two   Erosion    products  that  I  know  off  :-

  • (1)  Coir  logs.

coirlog

Coir logs, silt checks, dewatering bags and silt fencing. This combination of both synthetic and natural fiber materials helps to address runoff requirements around construction sites, storm drains, streams and inlets

Coir  logs  are biodegradable coconut coir  pith  measuring 1 – 6 metres in  length and  10  –  0 60 Metres  in  length These are  tightly packed in  a  tubular  coir fibre netting  made  from  coir  twine

It’s a  very  efficient  way  of  reducing  water velocity at  the  base  of  slopes ,shoreline & stream  banks.

Coir  Blankets are a biodegradable product designed for long-term erosion control in steep areas and demanding areas . Products are made from several all-natural materials to create erosion control that is effective and biodegradable .

Erosion blanket installation

Erosion blanket installation (Photo credit: Sound Native Plants)

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