Tag Archives: Pest control

Chemical Management

English: A sign warning about pesticide exposure.

English: A sign warning about pesticide exposure. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

An Health and  Saftey  Warning

User habits surveys for 2007 and 2010 indicate that gardeners don’t always use, store and dispose of pesticides correctly. If you use pesticides, you are responsible for using these chemicals correctly and effectively. We must keep our gardens and allotments safe for children, pets and wildlife.


When I  was  working  for  Lambeth Council  back  in 1980  all  the  employers  had  to  pass  a  strict  pesticide course  lasting  a  year  this  was  a  tough  course    but  it  made  you  aware  of  the  dangers  of  the  product  and  how  to  safety  apply  it.

But  looking  on  the  prospective  of  the  member  of  the  public  these  rules  no  longer  apply  as most  products  you  buy  claim  to  safe  to  the  environment if  you  follow  the  instructions  to  letter

But  with  this  scare  of  slugs  pellets  and  weed  killer  getting  into  our  water  I  don’t  think  the  news  is  getting  across

So  I’ll tell  you  how  to  apply  herbicides  or  pesticides  safely

  • Read  the  Label  (  I  know  it  obvious  &  that  you  think  you  know  it  all  but  you  don’t)  How  many  of  you  put  weed killer  down   then double  dose  the  plant  again . This  is  all  wrong  the  formulation  is  worked  out  in  the  lab.  for  maximum  effect  and    by  double  dosing  you  are  probably  increasing  the  salinity  of  the  soil.
    description of  pesticide  label

    description of pesticide label


  • Calibrate  –  What  I  do if  using  a  sprayer is to  fill  up  the  water  with  water  and  go  over  the  plant   or   ground  first   making  sure  that  plant  is  soaked  ie  beginning dripping  or  that  ground   is  covered  with  spray .

I  then  see  how  much  water  i  used  and  then  do  a  simple  division  to  find  out  how  much  chemical  i  actually  use  use all  the  instructions  say  4 cap  full  to   1 litre  or  1  gallon  of  water

  • When  using  any  chemical  always  use  PVC  gloves   these  are  cheap  and  better  than  latex  gloves  that  can  rip  and  allow   the  chemical  to  get  in  touch  with  your  skin
Red  Pvc  gloves

Red Pvc gloves

Note  the  tight  cuffs  around  the  wrist  this  makes  sure  that  nn  drips  get  on  to  your  hands

  • When    mixing  the  chemical  put  in  the   some  water  first    then  add your  chemical ( Some  products  have  it  all  ready  made  up  if  so  skip this  )  and  keep  on  stirring  it  until  it  dissolves then  top  up with  the  rest  of  water  mixing  it  again .By  doing  this   you  have dissolved  and  mixed  up  all  the  chemicals
  • If  the there  a  slight  breeze  or  wind  blowing  either  wear  a  mask  or  try  not  to  spray  into  the  wind .(  Note  chemical  spray  can  carry  in  the  wind  for  miles  without  you  knowing  and  with  out  a  mask  you  likely  to  get  some  on  your  mouth   )
  • Although  there  are  organic  or  biodegradable products  that  claim there  are  safe  I  always  veer on  the  side  of  caution

How  to  calibrate  your  sprayer 

The single most asked question in pesticide application is: “How much do I put in a knapsack?”

The answer is that it depends on the calibration of your sprayer. In short, how many square metres one sprayer full of water + pesticide will cover.

It is important that the correct amount of pesticide is applied per square metre, the amount of water much less so.

An  Professional Knapsack sprayer

An Professional Knapsack sprayer

As every sprayer has a different capacity, different nozzles with higher or lower output, a different operator who works at a different speed and pumps at a higher or lower pressure, calibration is the only answer. Here is one simple way to do it:

1. Measure exactly one litre of water into an empty sprayer and prepare it for spraying.

2. On a dry hard surface where you can see the spray wet it, walk forward, continually spraying as you would normally operate until the sprayer is empty. Measure how many square metres you have covered. Let us assume that this might be for instance, 20 square metres.

3. If your sprayer is a 15 litre model you multiply its normal capacity (15) x 20 (area one litre covered) = 300 square metres. This is the area that a whole knapsack will treat.

4. To work out how much pesticide to measure into the sprayer is now very easy. Look at the application rate on the product label.

eg. Roundup ProBiactive is 5L (=5,000ml) per Hectare (10,000 sq. metres)

5. To calculate how much to measure into your sprayer:

For example: 300 (Area that one sprayer full will cover) x 5,000 (Pesticide application rate per hectare in millilitres) / 10,000 (One hectare in square metres) = 150 millilitres

amateur sprayer

Start  your  spraying

  1. Working  up  and  down  the  plant   making  sure  that  both  surfaces  of  the  leaves  are  well  coated  and  started  to  drip
  • Always  spray  first  thing  in  the  morning  this  is done for several reasons ;-
  •   to  avoid  any  harm  to  the  pollinating  insects
  • and  also  the  leaves    spores  will  be  fully  opened
  • The  plant  has  time  to  recover   after  the  spray    and  the  leaves  will  be  dry
  1. Avoid  spraying  any  chemicals  near  water

For  Weed  Killer   there  is  one  simple  rule  DO NOT  SPRAY  NEAR  WATER  SURFACES

If  you  miscalculated  and  still  have  some  chemical  left  NEVER  EMPTY  IT  DOWN  THE  DRAIN

Storing  Chemicals 

  • After you have used a pesticide, make sure that the packaging is tightly closed or sealed to avoid spillage.
  • Store pesticides in a safe place, out of reach of children and pets.
  • Take particular care to store slug pellets safely to avoid accidental poisoning of children and pets – particularly dogs.
  • Garden sheds and greenhouses are not ideal for storing pesticides as they can get very hot in summer or cold in winter. Pesticide products are best stored at an even temperature.
  • If you store it carefully, any remaining pesticide will be effective for some years to come. You can check whether it is still legal to use by using  there  database

Concentrated pesticides that have been diluted and stored may not work as well when you next use them. It is also illegal to store pesticides that are unlabelled and not in their original container for safety reasons. Remember to only dilute enough for that day’s use.

Disposing  of  Chemicals

  • Whether you’ve diluted it or not, never pour pesticides down a drain or any other water drainage system (e.g. sink or toilet) because of the risk of contaminating water and harming wildlife. You could face prosecution.
  • Pesticide containers that have held concentrated product (i.e. requiring dilution before use) should be rinsed three times adding the washings to the final spray solution. The empty container can then be placed in household waste.
  • Empty pesticide containers that have held Ready-to-Use product (i.e. trigger sprays) can be disposed of directly into your household waste.
  • Other empty pesticide containers e.g. bags and cardboard boxes can also be disposed of in your household waste.
  • Check the label for any other advice on disposal of the product or empty container.

Pyrethum Explained

English: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium; syn. ...

English: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium; syn. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers., Pyrethrum parthenium Sm.) Magyar: Őszi margitvirágok (Tanacetum parthenium) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)



What is  a Pyrethrum.

Pyrethrum  is  a  member  of  the Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum. family  the  head  are  dried  then  left  to  brew  for several  hours  until the  distilling  is  completed.


It is  best  to  buy  the  insecticide already  made  as  the  brewing  can  be  harmful to  humans

The chemical involved  is  called pyrethrins.One common example is permethrin. A common formulation of pyrethrin is in preparations containing the synthetic chemical piperonyl butoxide: this has the effect of enhancing the toxicity to insects and speeding the effects when compared with pyrethrins used alone. These formulations are known as synergized pyrethrins.

How  to  use

Pyrethum comes  in  many  forms

  • As  a  powder  esp  for  bed  bugs  and  ant  powder  to  get  into   nooks  and  crevices.
  • As  a  spray   for  plant  use  ( this  comes  with  a   another  chemical  that stops  the  insects  getting  immune  to  it )
  • or  a  smoke  bombs    for  green  houses


although  Pyrethin is  natural  product  the  mass  produced  pyrethrum  is  human made.Both  formed  can  form  side  affects  when  inhaled  like

  • respiratory  problem
  • rashes  on  the  skin   should    you  be  in  contact   with  it

Therefore  it  always  wise  to  use  protective  clothing    like

  • face mask
  • rubber  gloves
  • and  to  avoid  spraying  it  into  the  wind
  • and  to  avoid  spraying  around  any  water  supply
  • and  always  spray  last  thing  at  night  or  early  morning  before  the  bees  arrive

Now  you  can  get  Pyrethrins  mixed  DE  under  a  brand  name  called  perma -guard 21 perma-guard-d21-237x345 which  acts  as   bug  killer  and  insecticide   spray

Pest and Disease Control


Slug (Photo credit: Marj Joly)



These Pests are the most destructive creatures to Man next to caterpillars they devour a single large leaf in a single day.

Most of us know the tale tale signs of them

The  slimy trail  they leave behind –  Is, in fact, the mucus they extract so they can move  freely

And also the extensive leaf damage they do to the plants –   not eating it from the outside like caterpillars but from in the inside out.                                                                                                                         Many of those tiny holes you see in soft leafy plants like lettuce and cabbages are made by slugs and snails.

However, there is one slug that is the predator of the baby slugs and that is

sluga  testacella  sp . note its pinkish body and an external mussel-shaped shell on its back.

The  only  drawbacks are that  it  also  eats  worms  too


The best way to control the slug population  is to maintain a clean environment.

removing any thick slabs of stones which they can hide under.

Mowing  in  the  evening  also  restricts  them  as  they  prefer  long  grass  to  hide  from  the  birds  and  other  predators


Cultural  control 

  • As I said  above to keep  your  garden  clean  as  possible
  • the first step is to eliminate, as much as possible, all places where they can hide during the day. Boards, stones, debris, weedy areas around tree trunks, leafy branches growing close to the ground, and dense ground covers such as ivy are ideal sheltering spots
  • Locate vegetable gardens or susceptible plants as far away from the snail and slug hiding places as possible. Reducing hiding places allows fewer snails and slugs to survive
  • Choose snail-proof plants
  • Go on  a  Slug  and  snail  hunt    picking  them  off
  • Set  simple  traps  like inverted  melon  rinds  and  cardboards  where  they   take  shelter
  • lay a beer  trap  like  the  slug  pubs I mentioned  bellow
  • Now you can create barriers with  a copper ring that gives off an electric shock when  as a slug or snail passes over it
  •    another Method is to scorch the earth to prevent the eggs from hatching If you do try this make sure all the snails are picked off first from the compost.  then apply a clear tarp 

    .  the sheet  over  the  compost  and  leave  out  in  the  sun  the  sun  rays  will  bake  the  earth  and  thus  kill  off  any  eggs

  • putting  down  a  barrier  of  1″  wide  and  3″  thick of a layer  of  silica  over  the  ground  can  deter  them  from  crossing  over as  the  sharp  strands  of  shell  pierce  their  underbelly and  they  then  dehydrate
  • but  the  only  disadvantage  that  it loses it  effectiveness as   soon  as  it  becomes  wet


The first line of attack is cultural Slugs like wet grounds which aren’t all stony.We have often seen dried up slugs on the hard gravel ground all swiveled up in hot weathers as they didn’t quite get to safety.

Birds  are  the best  predators  for  slugs  esp  the  thrushes  who  smash  open  the snail’s shell  with  stones


Therefore leave tiny stones near where you expect the slugs and snails live.Go green and try and use a chemical that doesn’t affect the thrushes population.thrush with  snail

How to attract  thrushes  into  your  garden 

Song Thrushes are ground feeders and they love raisins, sultanas and other fruit including windfall apples, especially in the winter when there are fewer earthworms and snails around for them. Put food on a low table or onto the ground to tempt this impressive songster.

One  tip  if  you  put  fallen  apples  down  by   where  the  snail  and  slugs live, blackbirds  and  thrushes  will  feast  on  them   with  the  apples  thus  clearing  the  slugs  for  you

Frogs  and  toads 

frogtoad and  frogs  a  voracious  slug  eaters  esp  toads  as  there  more  amphibious   mammals

These  can  encouraged  by  building  a  pond  or  by   introducing   newts   into  your  existing  one


This is only last result in the biological list of defense.

These  are  tiny worms like  organisms  that  feed  on  slugs  from  underground  & are  used  exclusively  by  farmers  in  the  war  against  the  slugs  and  snails

However, there  are  some Nematodes  which  aren’t  beneficial  to  the  plants  but  eat  at  the  roots  as  well


Copper  bands

mUD9rvGA_cva6orEtsx4_vQThis is recent deterrent to deter slugs and still in its infancy. When the slugs cross these bands they are submitted to an electrical chemical reaction that deters them.

The only drawbacks are that this product is expensive to use.But according to some forums they can be easily made by stripping wire and copper cables. Although they work to look the rings they might be cheaper and produce the same result.

These  rings  or  coils  are  placed  around   crops  and  flowers  with both  ends  touching



Slugs  and  snails  don’t  like   a  rough  surface  as  it  scratches  there  underbelly  so  introduce  loose  gravel  around  affected  plants Also  now  you  can  get  the  latest  killer called  diatom earth

Diatom  Earth  is fossilized  earth   containing  millions  of  these  diatoms  minute razor  shell  like  insects  that  have  been   fossilized  over  time  and  made  into  fuller  earth Here when the  slugs  and  snails  move  over  the  earth it dissects into  there  underbelly then exposing their waxy  cuticle   layer  leaving  then  dehydrate

The best method of using fuller earth or use the food Grade the others are toxic so don’t use them

you apply it early spring and till it into the soil.                                                                                                                                                     Or as a spray by following these guideline

add 1/4 lb. DE to a 5

gallon sprayer, then add a quart of warm water containing a teaspoon of flax perma-guard-d21-237x345soap, then top off with water and
mix thoroughly. One part D in 3 to 5 parts of water has also been used. This mixture can be sprayed on trees

and vegetation


This However is only effective in the greenhouse

Because once the soil is wet it loses its power. However, you  can  use   crushed  eggshell  outside  and  have  the  same  effect  without  the  leaching  effect

There  are  off  course  Slugs  pubs  which  attract  the  slugs  away  from  the  crop  or  plants  but  you  will  need  to  be  able  to  destroy  them  all  if  you  want  to  keep  up  with  them

Diatom earth  in  useHere  in  the  picture, you  can  see  it  just  looks  like  a  white  powder  like  chalk

The good thing about this is that is “green”  & therefore it doesn’t affect the food chain.Which  is  the  why  the  population  of  thrushes  are  slowly  dying  out  because  of  the  toxic  poisons  in  slug  bait

This product can be obtained from the Green Gardener as a Ant killer & also sold by RentoKill for professional use. But it can  be used as  slug deterrent  also



Slug  Pubs

These are getting popular as the slugs and snails are attracted to the smell to stale ale or yeast and  water. These  like  other  snail and  slug  baits  are better placed  a  few  inches  away  from  the crop or  plant  cause  it  just  might  decide  to  go  for  the  leave  instead  so  best  not  to  give  them  an  alternative

slug pub This idea is ideal what you do is invert a plastic bottle top inside the bottle and place the bait or ale inside once the slugs are inside they are poisoned and cant gets out

thus preventing the poison from getting in contact with the earth. There  are  two  type  of  chemical  slug  bait  that  you  can  get  on  the  market   here  is a site  that  gives  you  advise  on  what  slug  bait  to  use  http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7427.html

As  the  information, there  is  more  complex


Pest and Disease Control Debunking the old myths


aphids (Photo credit: Sonya >> 搜你丫)

English: Syrphid fly maggot feeding on aphids....

English: Syrphid fly maggot feeding on aphids. Southeastern Pennsylvania. Español: Larva de mosca Syrphidae alimentándose de áfidos (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Pest  Control

After  intensive  research  I  found   a  much  safer  approach  to  using  pesticides   and  more   effective   way  of  killing  pest  without  killing  the  beneficial  insects  too

It s  used  a  lot  in  America  and  its  called  IPC  Identifying ,Prevention & Control


We all  know  what  our  common  aphids  look  like   and  when  our  plant  is  infested  with  black  and  green  fly  so  we  are  half  way  there  already. But  the  hard  task  is  identifying  the  predators  like  the  one  above  a  fly   used  in  green  houses  to control  aphid  the  same  as  Encarsa Formosa wasp


There  are  also  other  predators  that  feast  on  the   insects  like  the  lace wing  fly and of  course  the  lady bugs  and  hover  flies


  • When  planting  out  avoid  over  feeding  the  plant  with   nitrogen  as  the  rich  sappy  attracts  them,If  the  plants  need  a  pickup  then  go  for  a   general   feed or  one  that  used  for  tomatoes  like  fushias  but  with  a  ratio  of  1 to  2  gallons  of  water to  encourage  flowers .

This  is  because it  contains  phosphates  for  flowers  and  fruit  with  very  little  nitrogen

  • Plant  resistant  variety  of  veg  or  flowers
  • Remove  soft  tip  broad beans
  • Buy  Autumn  sown  plants    these  are  much  hardy  than  one  sown  in  spring
  • on  fruit  trees  use  grease  bands  to  deter  the  ants  that  from  protecting  the  aphids  from  there  predators


Ounce  you  recognised  that  you  still  got  the  infestation  you  go  to  controlling  them  either  synthetically  or  organically .

  1. Biological  control

This  is  includes  using  the  predators  insects  that  I  mentioned   above   in  the  indoor  environment  except  for  the  case of  the  lady birds  and  the  hover  fly &  of  course   birds  The  wasp  and  the  lace  wing  needs  to  inside  for  it  to  be  effective.

These  methods  here  are ways  to  attract  them  to  your  garden

  • Blue Tits  are  voracious  feeders  By  putting  a  bird  feeder  out  amongst  the  plants  will  encourage  the  tits to  feed  on  the  plant  whilst  they  are  waiting  to  get  on  the  feeder .Grow  sedums  and  Allium and  sunflowers  and  leave  the  seeds  to  ripen  would  attract  birds  to  your  garden
  • encourage Lady  bugs  by  placing  a  raisin  in  a  dish   and  around  your  plants  see picture  bellow

lady bug & raisonFor  Some strange  reason  they  are  attracted  to  it  either  cause  its  sugar  taste  or  they  think  its  female. either  way  it  works

Then  if  you  feel  inclined   why  not  buy  or  build  your  lady  bug  house.bearing  in  mind  that  need  somewhere  sheltered  but  near  the  food  source

lady bug  housethis  can  be  easily  made  out  bamboo  canes  and  half  a  log  with  holes

This  house  not  only  attracts ladybugs  but  other  beneficial  insects  too  like  lace  wing  and  hover  flies  who  need  shelter

Control in  the  Green  House 

If  plants  get  in  the  infested  in  the  greenhouse  there  are  several  ways  to  dislodge  the  insects.  Some  are  like  what  i  mentioned  above  like  spraying  with  water  first  thing  to  knock  them off, spraying  them  inside  this  can  be  risky  to  your  health  as  you will  be  enclosed  place best  to  wear  the  protective  clothing .

You  could  also  use  Bombs  that  fumigate  the  area   to  do  this  best  make  sure  that  all your  corners  are  sealed   and  leave  the  smoke  to  die  down. This  too  might be  bad  for  your health

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_TT9sW1PiL4r  health

Then  you  got  predator  control

Encarsa  FormoI-HO-TVAP-EF.026sa  :-

  • is  a  tiny  wasp  that  lays  its  eggs inside  the  whiteflies  pupae  then  the  larvae    eats  what  in  the  pupae  leaving  a  shell  before  flying  off  and  starting  the  cycle  again
  • Now  there  a  new line  in  research   using  fungi  called Mycoinsecticide

botanigard-es1This   does  the  same  thing.Encarsa  but  this  time  it  can  be  applied  outside  as  well  as  in .

And as  for  I  know  it  is  not  dangerous  to  our  health.

It  is  only  produced  in  the  America  unfortunately  whilst  the  west  looks  on

Cultural  control

Companion  planting

images1where  you  plant   marigolds  next  to  runner  beans  to  distract  them   and  when  the  plant is  covered  you  pull  the  marigolds  out  and  incinerate   or  place them  in  the  bags  and  dispose  of  them  in  dump.

Here  in  this  picture  you  have  lettuce   growing  with  a  mixture  of  plants  like  marigolds  & callandulas  a good  guide  can  found  at  this  website.   http://www.small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/planting_companion_vegetables_and_herbs.html

Do  not  compost  them  as  you  only  be  spreading  the  aphids  in  the  soil  and  you  be  back  to  square  one.

  • Cut  out  any  infested  leaves  and  shoots  and  burn  them
  • Squirting  them  with  water will  dislodge  the  aphids  from  the  plant  and  wash  off  the  honey  drew  as  well  and most  will  not  be  able  to  return  to  the  plant  afterwards

The  best  time  for  this  is  in  the  morning  then  the  plant  can  quickly   dry  out


There  are  two  types  of  chemicals  on  the  market   one  is  synthetic  ie  made  in  a  factory  and  the  other  one  is  organic .

  • Synthetic  :-
  1. There  are  two  types  to  look  for   one  is  contact    the  other  is  systemic .
  • Contact  as  the  name  says  means  it  will  kill  on  contact   via  either  poisoning  through  their  skins  or  drowning  them   however  these  don’t  truly  get  rid  of  them  problem  as  many  more will  come  after  the  other  have  died,
  1. Derris  Dust  is  a  good  example  comes  in  a  puffer  can  and  is  applied  to  leaves
  • Then  there  a  systemic   pesticide  which  is  absorbed  by  the  plants  leaves  and  poisons  the  aphid  through  digestion    thus  staying  in  the  plant  over  a  course  of  weeks

White Fly

These  are  the  annoying  pest  of  all  not  only  that  they  are  supper  immune  to  everything   we  spray  on  to  them .They  are  supper  sensitive  too  one  touch  of  the  plant  and  they fly  off   and  come  back  to  settle  on  the  plant  as  soon  as  it  stop  moving.Thus  alluding  our  effort  to  control  them  by  using  spray  of  any  sort .

However  they  are  other  means  to  control  them  organically :-

  • Introduce  or  encourage  their  predators  other  winged  insects  that feed  on  the  wing  a  good  example  is  the  lace  wing .  this  is  done  by  building  a  insect house  where  they  can  hibernate  and  shelter  during  the  winter

insect and  bee  house    This  encourage  other  insects  like  bees  and  beetles  to  take  shelter

  • Constructing  a  white  fly    trap

White Fly  trapsHere  the  yellow  card  attracts  them like  a  beacon  where  they  get  caught  and  stuck  to  it  sticky  surface  This  also  works  with  aphids  too

acts  rather  like  a  pheromone  trap  for  months

  • Another  method  is  a  cultural  one  is   if  you  know  where  these  flies  hibernate , then  avoiding  planting  anything   in  the  vicinity of  them

Organic Pesticides

Since  I  gone  into  the  other  organic   natural  way   of  controlling  aphids  I  will  now  tell  you  the  other  ways which are  cheaper  but  more  laborious  as  the  plant  will  have  to  resprayed  several  times  on  infection

  • Insecticide  soapOne  way  is  to  squirt  aphids  with   soapy    no  fragrant   water    this  gets  into  their  cuticles  and it dries them out.also  it operate by suffocating insects such as scale insects. In general, soap sprays are effective for soft-bodied insects including mealybugs, aphids.

To a varying degrees, soap sprays are also effective against chiggers, earwigs, fleas, mites, scales, and thrips. They are not effective, however, on chewing insects such as caterpillars and beetles.

  • This  can  mixed  up  with  another   aphid  killer  called  pyrethum  (  a  daisy  family ) these  together  act  as  contact  herbicide  if  You’r  in  the   Americas or  other  part of  the  country  that  not  england  you  can  get  Neem  oil  it  is  banned  here  in  the  UK

pyrethuimYou  can  make  your  own  just  by  stewing  the petals

The  How  to  is  linked  here  Pyrethrum

The  best  time  to  use  this  is  early  morning  or  late  evening  as  it  can  effect  other  beneficial  insects  as  well

pyrethum  spray

Of  course   you  could   just  buy  it  over  the  counter  in  a  big  garden  centres  not  this  products  but  other  brands  but  take  note  of  the  caution  too

There  is  cause  many  homebrew  remedies  that  people  claim  work ,there  is  one  which  I  remember  from  college  and  that’s   rhubarb   leaves

Rhubarb  I  mentioned  earlier  there  are  several  ways  to   get  rid  of  aphids  in  the  garden  and  leaves  contain a  chemical    called    oxalic  acid  which  is  toxic  to  pest  and  kills  them whether  you  can  use  that  recipe  now  due  to  the  regulations  I  don’t  know  so  i  wont  go  into  detail   about .

But  further  research  has  shown  that   you  can  brew  up  sorrel  and  oxalic  too  which  both  have  the  oxalic  acid  OXALIC  acid  is  TOXIC  I used  this  as  example  and  would  not recommend   trying  it  out

like  all  homebrews  these  are  unregulated  and  without    researching  fully    can  cause  health  problems

Chemical  pesticides

If  you  choose  the  chemical  approach  then  there  only  two  thing  to  remember ;-

  • There  are  two  brands  of  insecticide  on  the  market  one being  a  Contact  insecticide  meaning   if  the  spray  gets  in  contact  with   the  insect  it  will  kill  via  its  nerves  system   this  ideal  for  caterpillars
  • And  there  systemic insecticide  this the  one  that  absorbed  through  the  leaves  into  the  sap  of  the  plant  and  kills  the  suckers  via  ingestion ( ideal  for  aphids  and  green  fly)
  • However  there  is  another  organic  method  I  was  taught  at  college  but  it  comes  with  a  warning  cause  the  use  of  it  was  banned  here  in  the  UK and  that  is  make  a  brew  of  rhubarb leaves and  spray  the  plant  with  that.

     The  leaves  contain  a  chemical  called  oxalic  acid  which is  known  to  be  killer,but  you  don’t  have  to  use  rhubarb there  are  other  plants  like  oxalis  and  sorrel  contain  a  high  percentage

Footnote  After  intensive  research  into  some  products  like  neem  oil  as  insecticide  I  found  out  that  it  been  banned  over  here  so  You  can’t  get  hold  of  it

So  if  there  any  references  to  this  product  it  mainly  for  the  american  market  and  not  for  the  UK  unless  thing  has  changed


Neem  oil 

Although  Neem  oil  isn’t  sold  for  domestic  uses  yet  here  in  the  UK  it  is used   in  the  professional   industries like  hydroponics  stores   as  a  way  to  get  rid  of  pest

What is  Neem oil

Neem is derived from the azadirachta indica tree which grows in Asia and
Africa. The Azadirachata Indica or Neem tree is truely a hardy tree
that has many characteristics that bugs do not like. Neem is a medium
sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed,
dark brown to grey bark, and dense rounded crown of pinnate leaves.

What  does  it  do

GET_Neem_oil_250_502262e6e68e7Neem comprises of 40 different active compounds called
tertranortriperpernoids, or more specifically liminoids. These liminoids
create hormonal disruptions and prevents the insect from feeding,
breeding or metamorphosing

How  to  use

Neem oil  is  best  applied  during  the  vegatation    stage  of  the  plant   and  not  when  flowering  in  a  spray  form  where  it  will  coat  the  leaves  with  it  oily  texture